Immaterial and Missing Power/Esoterics

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1F frame gap ("suki")

The 1F frame gap (also known as the "1F suki" in Japanese parlance) is a unique property to the game. Simply put, after entering a neutral state when recovering from any non-neutral state, there is a one-frame period during which your character is in a "suki" (short for "sukima", or "gap") state. The definition of a suki state is that you are allowed to block, but the game will not test for previously inputted unbuffered motions whatsoever. So you cannot hold 6D while in suki, as it is unbufferable, but you can do 66, because it can be buffered, or press 6D at the exact frame suki begins.
The 1F gap property can be utilized in frame traps. The most prominent usage of this is Patchouli's block string sequence, 5B 6B 5C 236B. By delaying the input of 236B by one frame, Patchouli can induce a state in which the enemy is allowed to stop blocking (since blocking is absolute in IaMP) and lead them to believe they can graze through the 236B when in fact they are simply in a neutral state caused by the 1F suki. This will in turn cause the 236B to strike them and knock them down.
This is important to know regarding wakeup situations. If you use D button motion, you can't wakeup graze meaty bullets without hitting it on the exact frame that you wake up on. However, if you manually input the bufferable dash or high jump motions instead, 44/66/27/28/29, you will bypass the suki and immediately start grazing. This makes it possible to escape otherwise meaty setups such as Alice 236A in the corner and Patchouli j.2A upon wakeup.
Reversal 1F wakeup grazing to bypass the 1F suki also has a few shortcuts and option selects to make it even easier or safer. Holding D and double tapping inputs works for any directional graze, such as: [D]44 or [D]66 for backdasing or forward dashing (respectively). Or using: [D]27, or [D]28, or [D]29, for backwards, vertical, or forward highjumping (respectively). However, it should be noted that tapping 28 is risky because if you time it incorrectly you can still get hit by the bullets. Instead, tapping 17 while holding D works as an option select because it transitions from a crouch block to a jump block or a highjump automatically. When using [D]17, if you time the inputs wrong you will either crouch or stand block which prevents damage, but if you time it right you will either backdash or HJ7 through the bullets instead. This also works with [D]44 since timing the inputs wrong will result in a stand block, but inputting them correctly results in a backdash. Additionally, [D]147 results in three very rapid graze attempts because 1 can also cause a backdash, as well as 4, and moving from 1 to 7 quickly results in a HJ7 attempt. Note, however, that there are ways to punish backdash attempts and there are times when (especially when you are in the corner) backdashing is bad -- in this case you want to avoid pressing 1 and 4 to avoid accidental backdashes.
Note, wakeup grazing works the same as wakeup reversal moves (such as special moves and spellcards). What this means is that if your opponent crosses you up, or you cross under them with a ground tech, the directions are not reversed. The directions used for specials/cards/reversal-grazing are based on the direction you were facing when you were knocked down, and is not relative to your opponent's position. Therefore, if you cross the opponent up and input away from them, you will graze forward -- likewise, if you input toward them you will backdash, which can be seen in this video.

1F Turn Glitch

Characters that enter hitstun become turned-around to face their opponent for 1F, hitboxes included. This allows attacks facing the wrong direction to connect in impossible situations.

Blockswitch

Opponents in blockstun have no active collision detection, allowing you to go through them. This opens up some possibilities for mixup with certain characters, but due to the game's absolute guard, requires precise timing to be useful.

Flight Glitch

Inputting a HJ during super freeze may cause the character to fly off the screen.

Interrupted Jump Glitch

Yukari is capable of suspending herself in midair after a gap.
The technical reason for this is that gravitational acceleration is not set until at least one non-suki neutral frame has occured. Because the gap special nulls all velocity and acceleration, this makes it possible to hover in place in the air with one frame timing.
All attacks that reset velocity and acceleration have the same property.

Round End Glitch

IaMP will not begin the next round until both players are in neutral state. It is possible to infinitely delay the beginning of the next round by utilizing continuous triangle grazing so that the victor of the round never enters neutral.

Reimu Superarmor

Reimu will occasionally ignore being hit during her 3DA move.
This bug is exclusive to Reimu 3DA and is an oversight in the frame data for the character.
For every frame, there are flags that indicate whether the character is standing, crouching, or in the air. This tells the game what sort of hitstun to enter when an attack connects. For the first two frames of Reimu 3DA, she is in none of these states. So if she is attacked during these two frames she will get hit, causing a counterhit, but will not enter hitstun.

Youmu 2P Suki Throw

It is possible for Player 2 Youmu to throw an opponent during the 1F suki period of Player 1. This causes a theoretically unbreakable throw loop but also favors Youmu to be played on the Player 2 side. This is the only glitch that is banned in tournament.

Sakuya/Remilia Timestop Sideswitch

During Timestop, Sakuya can walk through Remilia during the stopping portion of the move if Remilia holds back.
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